Monday, November 28, 2016

2017 Database Administrator Holiday Gift Guide

TO DBAs:Database Administrators and other computer type folks are very hard to buy presents for at this time of year. Please help your family and friends out out by printing this off and notating which of the following items your would find acceptable.

TO The Friends and Family of a DBA: Yes, they are a pain in the pa-toot to buy a holiday gift for but hopefully this lest will make things a little easier. There are a lot of t-shirt on this list and this is a change to get that one threadbare relic from a long ago computer conference sent to the Valhalla for mangy cotton blend fabrics. Good luck and hopefully you will see something below that will keep you from just handing over a gift card. o

Amazon

Need to work on your laptop in bed or a variety of angles? Then this Furinno X7-BK Ergonomics Aluminum Adjustable Cooling Fan Laptop Tray Table is what you want, available in many colors.

Zazzle

Zazzle.com has a nice collection of DBA centric gifts.
And in female styles also.

Think Geek

Infectious Disease Ball

Cafe Press

Cafe Press has a line of t-shirts, also in m/f sizes and styles
Mugs too!

TeeSpring

Teespring has some interesting shirts

Bonanza

Bonanza.com also has shirts

Uncommongood

Yes, we al have too many phone chargers. Here is uncommongoods.com way to help identify them uniquely.
Other suggestions: Passes for movie theaters (new Star Wars movie on the way), Amazon gift cards, or Bacon of the Month Club membership.

Friday, November 11, 2016

Testing MySQL 8

MySQL 8

MySQL 8 is now available for testing. The list of features is impressive and I am sure many PHP developers will be interested in having a true data dictionary, invisible indexes, and more. Right now it is in a milestone release. I am still doing a lot of work with 5.7 and found a great way to have 8 around when I needed by using Docker. Follow the Docker install guide for your platform of choice and then run
docker run --name mysql8 -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=hidave -d mysql:8.0

Checking to See if it Really Works

 docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED              STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
ae1824fc01b5        mysql:8.0           "docker-entrypoint.sh"   About a minute ago   Up About a minute   3306/tcp            mysql8
Note that our instance of MySQL 8 has the container id of ae1824fc01b5. And odds are your container id will be anything but ae1824fc01b5.

Connect to the Container

 docker exec -it ae1824fc01b5 bash
Start up the MySQL command line interface.

# mysql -u root -p       
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5
Server version: 8.0.0-dmr MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> 
MySQL 8 is running. There is no data loaded. To be able to do that from the host box, we will need to talk to the MySQL Container. And to do that we need the IP Address.
ip a show eth0                                                                                                       
6: eth0@if7:  mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default 
    link/ether 02:42:ac:11:00:02 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 172.17.0.2/16 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::42:acff:fe11:2/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
Exit off the container. Now you can load your data and I used the world_x test database mysql -u root -p -h 172.17.0.2 < world_x.sql

Test!


#!/usr/bin/php
connect_errno) {
    echo "Failed to connect to MySQL: (" . $mysqli->connect_errno . ") " . $mysqli->connect_error;
}

$res = $mysqli->query("SELECT Name FROM city ORDER BY Name limit 7");

echo "City names...\n";
for ($row_no = $res->num_rows - 1; $row_no >= 0; $row_no--) {
    $res->data_seek($row_no);
    $row = $res->fetch_assoc();
    echo " Name = " . $row['Name'] . "\n";
}

Now for the first data out of MySQL 8 in the container
shell>php test.php
City names...
 Name = Abakan
 Name = Abaetetuba
 Name = Abadan
 Name = Aba
 Name = Aalborg
 Name = Aachen
 Name = A Coru�a (La Coru�a)
So the test environment is set up. Onto the tests of MySQL 8.

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

NomadPHP and MySQL JSON Lightening Talk

I will be presenting a short lightening talk on MySQL's JSON Data Type for NomandPHP on Thursday the 13th of October
. Chuck Reeves will be doing the main presentation on How the 3rd Normal Form Destroyed a Family. Get your tickets here.

Friday, August 12, 2016

Moving data from MongoDB to MySQL's JSON Document Store

I had an interesting phone call from someone wanting to move from MongoDB to MySQL's new JSON Document Store. The big question was 'How do I export my Mongo data into something I can read into MySQL?"

The good news is that the folks at Mongo have given us the tools for the hard part of a simple process. For this example I am going to use some test data create previously in a database creatively named dave. The numbers are made up and I am using my name and the names of the canines residing in my home. So a quick peek at the data:


$ mongo
MongoDB shell version: 3.2.8
connecting to: test
> use dave
switched to db dave
> db.dave.find()
{ "_id" : 123, "name" : "Dave" }
{ "_id" : 456, "name" : "Jack" }
{ "_id" : 789, "name" : "Dexter" }
{ "_id" : 787, "name" : "Boo" }
> 
bye

Dumping That Data

First use mongodump -d dave to write out the data much as you would with mysqldump. Under you current working directory of your shell (assuming you are on Unix/Linux) there will be created a directory named dump. And under dump is a directory named after the example database dave.

A dave.bson file was created with the data.

BSON to Text

Executing bsondump dave.bson > output.file will convert the MongoDB BSON formatted data into something much easier to work with.

$ cat output.file 
{"_id":123.0,"name":"Dave"}
{"_id":456.0,"name":"Jack"}
{"_id":789.0,"name":"Dexter"}
{"_id":787.0,"name":"Boo"}

The output.file can be processed in a number of ways to pull it into MySQL such as using your favorite text editor to wrap insert statements around the data or using a simple program that reads a line from the text file and then send data to the database.

Thursday, August 4, 2016

MySQL Document Store -- The NoSQL Zipcodes

The MySQL Document Store functionality allows developers to use a relation database with or without SQL (structured Query Language), also known as NoSQL. The example in this blog is hopefully a simple look at this new feature of MySQL. The example data used is from JSONStudio.com and is a JSON formatted data set for US zip (postal) codes (656K compressed). So download your copy of this data set and lets get to work.

Create a collection

Collections are tables and below we create a collection name 'zip' in the test database in the Python dialect.

mysqlsh -u root -p --py test
Creating an X Session to root@localhost:33060/test
Enter password:
Default schema `test` accessible through db.

Welcome to MySQL Shell 1.0.4 Development Preview

Copyright (c) 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type '\help', '\h' or '\?' for help.

Currently in Python mode. Use \sql to switch to SQL mode and execute queries.
mysql-py> db.createCollection("zip")


Is it there?

As soon as most of use create a table we want to see if it is there.

mysql-py> db.getCollections();
[
    <Collection:zip>
]
mysql-py> 
So it is there. But what is the underlying structure of this table. Switch to SQL dialect (or open a mysql client.

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE zip;
+-------+--------------------------------+
| Table | Create Table                                                                                                                                                                                                       |
+-------+--------------------------------+
| zip   | CREATE TABLE `zip` (
  `doc` json DEFAULT NULL,
  `_id` varchar(32) GENERATED ALWAYS AS (json_unquote(json_extract(`doc`,'$._id'))) STORED NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`_id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 |
+-------+--------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> 
If you peeked at the zip code file you downloaded, you may have noticed that it has an _id field already. But what if your data set has no _id or you want to use another key/value pair from the data as an index? Simply use a stored generated column on the field of your choice. Remember good indexing practices still count as the underlying relational database still has to keep the infrastructure underneath up to date.

Loading data

I will skip over the loading of the zip code data (I can address that in a later blog post if there is any interest. For now lets take it as a given that the data has been moved into the new collection.

Finding a Rainbow

So lets look for a particular zip code. For out data set the zip code corresponds with _id field.And remember that this column is a generated column using that field from the JSON document.

mysql-py> db.zip.find("_id = '76077'")
[
    {
        "_id": "76077",
        "city": "RAINBOW",
        "loc": [
            -97.70652,
            32.281216
        ],
        "pop": 722,
        "state": "TX"
    }
]
1 document in set (0.00 sec)

mysql-py> 

How About Searching a Non-indexed JSON data

Lets look for the state of Texas, or TX in the JSON data. Previous we had the _ID field as a materialized column extracted from the JSON data. Now we are asking the MySQL server to read all the records and return the ones meeting the criteria. This does perform a full table scale of the data (not as efficient as as index) but, thanks to the relatively small amount of records, it does return fairly quickly.

mysql-py> db.zip.find("state = 'TX'")
.
.  (Omitted)

.  
{
        "_id": "79935",
        "city": "EL PASO",
        "loc": [
            -106.330258,
            31.771847
        ],
        "pop": 20465,
        "state": "TX"
    },
    {
        "_id": "79936",
        "city": "EL PASO",
        "loc": [
            -106.30159,
            31.767655
        ],
        "pop": 52031,
        "state": "TX"
    }
]
1676 documents in set (0.06 sec)

mysql-py> 

Wrap Up

So now we can create a collection and search it. But what happens when we add records and especially records without our index-able key? That will be covered in another blog soon.

Thursday, July 28, 2016

Is the new MySQL Document Store and JSON data type cheating?

Is it cheating? Is using MySQL without Structured Query Language (SQL) or putting all your data into one column proper? Impossible a year ago and probably thought as a poor/crazy practice until recently, this is a new type of MySQL usage. NoSQL has had a big impact in the SQL world with several relational products from vendors like MySQL, Microsoft, Postgresql and others offering NoSQL interfaces and JSON data types to their databases.

Several old timers have come to me asking if putting lots of data in a JSON column is cheating? After all data normalization is part of relational databases and the way to efficiency and speed is well organized data. This higgledy–piggledy fashion of putting an entire document in a column without breaking it down to its component sections does violate the first rule of data normalization. And that has worked for decades pretty well.

But things change.

Many new development projects start with no idea what their data is going to look like. Maybe, if they are lucky, they will pick an API for interchanging data. Some will decide to use a database as a persistent message queue. Sometimes the service is product and the products offered by that service are nebulous at beast at the onset so the developers do not want to be locked into a schema.

And schema changes get expensive quickly. Code written before the change needs to be updated and you have to get the DBA to run an ALTER TABLE that can take too long to complete. And rolling back is almost impossible.

Compounding this is the lack of database skills in new developers. Very few have any training in Structured Query Language, relational theory, sets, data normalization, or other skills that have been held in high esteem since the days of Codd. And these new developers argue that they do not need these skills as technology and approaches to coding have evolved. So if the foundation of relational databases is the weak link then remove it.

The JSON data type has been very popular with developers. In the past you could dump JSON documents in a CHAR column and used REGEX or have your application dig out the parts you needed from within the document. Now with MySQL 5.7 there is a native JSON data type with supporting functions so that developers can manipulate the document data easily. So storing data in a JSON format in a column of a table within a database becomes a valuable has becomes a useful part of a developers life.

Ruby on Rails was the first piece of software that allowed many developers to see the power of CRUD (Create Read Update Delete) access to a database without needing to know SQL. The MySQL Document Store features that arrived with 5.7.13 also provide CRUD so developers can use 'collections' for schema-less data storage. The developers do not need to know SQL. relational theory, or any of the other old stuff. The good news for the old timers is that the data may be stored in a schema-less fashion but data is stored in a good ol' MySQL table. Which means the decades spent gathering SQL skills still work on this new data.

But is it cheating? Yes, and no. Yes in that you would get better performance out of having all your data in fourth or fifth normalized form just like a good driver can get better performance out of good driving practices with a manual transmission. No in that the data is still in a relational database and pertinent information can still be pried out of the JSON data. Heck you can even make materialized columns from the JSON data to create indexes.

Wednesday, July 6, 2016

How to make sure that 'password' is not a valid MySQL password

Password management is an issue for many. It is not uncommon for an organization to require you to changing your password on a regular basis and many have rules on the length and content of passwords. The length and complexity (that require certain amounts of upper & lower case characters, special characters, and numerals) rules try to prevent users from using '12345', 'qwerty', or even the word 'password' itself as passwords. With MySQL 5.7 you can filter out those bad passwords, obscenities, slurs, or other words you do not want used as or part of a password.

If the STRONG password policy is set in the my.cnf file, a validate_password_dictionary_file can be specified and you can use your favorite text editor to add the words or phrases you wish to not be valid in that file. Note that words shorter than four characters are ignored. So create a file with a text editor ( mine was placed in /var/lib/mysql/dit) with the banned words, edit the my.cnf file to set the validate_password_policy to STRONG, and also add the path to your dictionary file to validate_password_dictionary_file line of the same file. Restart your server and test.

My test dictionary had words like 'foobar', 'snafu', and 'password' and trying to use password with one of the words in the dictionary file would generate a ERROR 1819 (HY000): Your password does not satisfy the current policy requirement, even if I mixed the case of the various letters in the restricted words.

MySQL 5.7 also added the ability to set lifetimes for password in age, the ability to lock accounts, and stopped adding anonymous accounts (no user name and no password) during installation.

By the way I will be speaking in Detroit at the Converge Conference on MySQL 5.7 security if you would like to know more about this and other MySQL 5.7 related information.